Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

Richtige Fernseher haben Röhren!

In Brief: On this site you will find pictures and information about some of the electronic, electrical and electrotechnical technology relics that the Frank Sharp Private museum has accumulated over the years .

Premise: There are lots of vintage electrical and electronic items that have not survived well or even completely disappeared and forgotten.

Or are not being collected nowadays in proportion to their significance or prevalence in their heyday, this is bad and the main part of the death land. The heavy, ugly sarcophagus; models with few endearing qualities, devices that have some over-riding disadvantage to ownership such as heavy weight,toxicity or inflated value when dismantled, tend to be under-represented by all but the most comprehensive collections and museums. They get relegated to the bottom of the wants list, derided as 'more trouble than they are worth', or just forgotten entirely. As a result, I started to notice gaps in the current representation of the history of electronic and electrical technology to the interested member of the public.

Following this idea around a bit, convinced me that a collection of the peculiar alone could not hope to survive on its own merits, but a museum that gave equal display space to the popular and the unpopular, would bring things to the attention of the average person that he has previously passed by or been shielded from. It's a matter of culture. From this, the Obsolete Technology Tellye Web Museum concept developed and all my other things too. It's an open platform for all electrical Electronic TV technology to have its few, but NOT last, moments of fame in a working, hand-on environment. We'll never own Colossus or Faraday's first transformer, but I can show things that you can't see at the Science Museum, and let you play with things that the Smithsonian can't allow people to touch, because my remit is different.

There was a society once that was the polar opposite of our disposable, junk society. A whole nation was built on the idea of placing quality before quantity in all things. The goal was not “more and newer,” but “better and higher" .This attitude was reflected not only in the manufacturing of material goods, but also in the realms of art and architecture, as well as in the social fabric of everyday life. The goal was for each new cohort of children to stand on a higher level than the preceding cohort: they were to be healthier, stronger, more intelligent, and more vibrant in every way.

The society that prioritized human, social and material quality is a Winner. Truly, it is the high point of all Western civilization. Consequently, its defeat meant the defeat of civilization itself.

Today, the West is headed for the abyss. For the ultimate fate of our disposable society is for that society itself to be disposed of. And this will happen sooner, rather than later.

OLD, but ORIGINAL, Well made, Funny, Not remotely controlled............. and not Made in CHINA.

How to use the site:

- If you landed here via any Search Engine, you will get what you searched for and you can search more using the search this blog feature provided by Google. You can visit more posts scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year,
or you can click on the main photo-page to start from the main page. Doing so it starts from the most recent post to the older post simple clicking on the Older Post button on the bottom of each page after reading , post after post.

You can even visit all posts, time to time, when reaching the bottom end of each page and click on the Older Post button.

- If you arrived here at the main page via bookmark you can visit all the site scrolling the left blog archive of all posts of the month/year pointing were you want , or more simple You can even visit all blog posts, from newer to older, clicking at the end of each bottom page on the Older Post button.
So you can see all the blog/site content surfing all pages in it.

- The search this blog feature provided by Google is a real search engine. If you're pointing particular things it will search IT for you; or you can place a brand name in the search query at your choice and visit all results page by page. It's useful since the content of the site is very large.

Note that if you don't find what you searched for, try it after a period of time; the site is a never ending job !

Every CRT Television saved let revive knowledge, thoughts, moments of the past life which will never return again.........

Many contemporary "televisions" (more correctly named as displays) would not have this level of staying power, many would ware out or require major services within just five years or less and of course, there is that perennial bug bear of planned obsolescence where components are deliberately designed to fail and, or manufactured with limited edition specificities..... and without considering........picture......sound........quality........

..............The bitterness of poor quality is remembered long after the sweetness of todays funny gadgets low price has faded from memory........ . . . . . .....
Don't forget the past, the end of the world is upon us! Pretty soon it will all turn to dust!

Have big FUN ! !

©2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 Frank Sharp - You do not have permission to copy photos and words from this blog, and any content may be never used it for auctions or commercial purposes, however feel free to post anything you see here with a courtesy link back, btw a link to the original post here , is mandatory.
All sets and apparates appearing here are property of
Engineer Frank Sharp. NOTHING HERE IS FOR SALE !

Thursday, July 18, 2013


The  WEST (SEIMART)  TV12P is a 12 inches (31cm) B/W portable television with 8 programs keyboard push button and potentiometric tuning search system. The set allows mains 220volt supply and 12volt supply DC type.
Recently, it has become more popular than ever to watch TV in a car as the number of cars increases. In general, a storage battery of 12 volts is used in small cars while one of 24 volts is used in large cars so that there is a disadvantage that a separate power supply device is required for driving a TV set in compliance with the respective battery used in the car. The present invention relates to a power supply circuit of a television receiver used in an automobile, and in particular to a power supply circuit of a television receiver which enables two different voltages from two kinds of supply respectively mains at 220v and dc 12v.

The mechanical turret approach to television tuning has been used almost exclusively for the past 60 years. Even though replete with the inherent disadvantages of mechanical complexity, unreliability and cost, such apparatus has been technically capable of performing its intended function and as a result the consumer has had to bear the burdens associated with the device. However, with the " recent "  Broadcast demands for parity of tuning for UHF and VHF channels, the increasing number of UHF and cable TV stations have imposed new tuning performance requirements which severely tax the capability of the mechanical turret tuner. Consequently, attempts are now being made to provide all electronic tuning to meet the new requirements.
The use of voltage-variable diode-capacitors, such as varactor diodes, permits the electronic tuning of radio receivers and television receivers by the use of DC control voltages; so that the tuning elements no longer need to be intimately associated with the tuner. Thus, the tuned circuits of the tv receivers may be located remotely from the devices used to provide the necessary DC tuning voltages. In addition, the compact size of the voltage-variable diode-capacitor tuning circuits makes it desirable to use such tuning circuits in many tv applications which formerly used mechanically adjusted variable capacitors or the like as the tuning elements.

To employ voltage-variable diode capacitors in pushbutton tvs, however, especially in multiband pushbutton tv sets , a problem exists in providing a "memory," so that operation of a pushbutton will provide consistent tuning of the tv receiver to the station which is to be selected by that pushbutton. In addition it is necessary to provide some means for providing the initial tuning of the tv receiver for each pushbutton location in a manner which is reliable and inexpensive.
The invention relates to a tuning unit with bandswitch for high frequency receivers, especially radio and television receivers, having a potentiometer system for the control of capacity diodes, the said potentiometer system consisting of a plurality of parallel resistance paths along which wiper contacts can be driven by means of screw spindles disposed adjacent one another in a common insulating material housing in which a bandswitch formed of metal rods is associated with each tuning spindle.
In these tuning units, the working voltages of the capacity diodes in the tuning circuits are recorded once a precise tuning to the desired frequency has been performed. A potentiometer tuning system has great advantages over the formerly used channel selectors operating with mechanically adjustable capacitors (tuning condensers) or mechanically adjustable inductances (variometers), mainly because it is not required to have such great precision in its tuning mechanism.
Tuning units with bandswitches formed of variable resistances and combined with interlocking pushbuttons controlling the supply of recorded working voltages to capacity diodes are known. Channel selection is accomplished by depressing the knobs, and the tuning or fine tuning are performed by turning the knobs. The resistances serving as voltage dividers in these tuning units are combined into a component unit such that they are in the form of a ladderlike pattern on a common insulating plate forming the cover of the housing in which the tuning spindles and wiper contacts corresponding to the variable resistances are housed. The number of resistances corresponds to the number of channels or frequencies which are to be recorded. The wiper contact picks up a voltage which, when applied to the capacity diodes determines their capacitance and hence the frequency of the corresponding oscillating circuit. The adjustment of the wipers is performed by turning the tuning spindle coupled to the tuning knob. By the depression of a button the electrical connection between a contact rod and a tuning spindle is brought about and thus the selected voltage is applied to the capacity diodes. Since the push buttons release one another, it is possible simply by depressing another button to tune to a different receiving frequency or a different channel, as the case may be.
 Moreover, using this arrangement, the only indication--during adjustment--of which channel is selected is by station identification.

It has a Transistorized horizontal deflection circuits  made up of a horizontal switching or output transistor, a diode, one or more capacitors and a deflection winding. The output transistor, operating as a switch, is driven by a horizontal rate square wave signal and conducts during a portion of the horizontal trace interval. A diode, connected in parallel with the transistor, conducts during the remainder of the trace interval. A retrace capacitor and the deflection yoke winding are coupled in parallel across the transistor-diode combination. Energy is transferred into and out of the deflection winding via the diode and output transistor during the trace interval and via the retrace capacitor during the retrace interval.
In some television receivers, the collector of the horizontal output transistor is coupled to the B+ power supply through the primary windings of the high voltage transformer.

RADIOMARELLI (society of the group Magneti Marelli) has been
one of the most famous radio receivers industries: it was founded in 1891 as
Industria Elettromeccanica Italiana by ERCOLE MARELLI.
Radiomarelli was founded in 1929 from the Magneti Marelli company.

Between 1920 and 1930 there was a linkage from this Italian company and the American Bosch about the manufacturing of magnets and electrical parts for motor vehicles.

On 11.19.1930, the Magneti Marelli decided to start the radio production and the new company was named Radiomarelli.

The Radiomarelli project manager was Mr. B.A.Quintavalle and the first radio models, made in Italy, were inspired to the American Bosch models.

At that time, Radiomarelli and American Bosch were business partners.

The diagrams and the chassis of the first Radiomarelli models were similar to the ones of American Bosch models, the wood cabinets were a bit different.

The “Musagete” model has the same chassis of the A. Bosch mod. 48 and the wood cabinet was made in Italy but is very similar to the American model.

The “Coribante” model is the Italian version of the A. Bosch mod. 5.

The “Scrigno” model was the Italian version of the Bosch 200A & 200B models.

The chassis of the “Alauda” is very similar to the one of Bosch 402.
From 1935 onwards Radiomarelli decided to create a more independent production.
And obviously DIED like all Italian Industry..........

But before, it was aquired from the conglomerate of ELCIT AND SEIMART which was a joint developed by GEPI a government special system invented to "save" industry with "some" difficulties (!!!)

The tellye here in collection is a ELCIT branded RADIOMARELLI

SEIMART / ELCIT and its conglomerate was even proprietary of brands like:





Founded in 1922 in Torino ELCIT was a Radio fabrication industry which in the 1953 joined Visiola to produce television sets and other domestic appliances such washing machines and fridge.

ELCIT Was even proprietary of the MAGNADYNE brand which WAS a radio and Television well known brand.

In the 1960 the society was joined and aquired by SEIMART because of a market contraction which landed to GEPI a new society which re - founded ELCIT.

The conglomerate of ELCIT AND SEIMART which was a joint developed by GEPI a government special system invented to "save" industry with "some" difficulties (!!!) was unified.

SEIMART and its conglomerate was even proprietary of brands like:





The following sub brands were even from the group but were specialized in other fields like
preparing materials, developing parts and other jobs like domestic appliances and even CRT TUBE manufacutring.

NEOHM was a resistor fabricant and was part of the group

Basically the industry group was completely autonomous exept for semiconductors which were coming from other well known brands and manufacturers.


NEOHM was a resistor fabricant and was part of the group




ELCIT died in 1998 by typically Italian Industry Destroy culture (and , of course, chinese and turkish (super)CRAP basar !) and all workers and employee landed.......... on the street !!!!!!!!!!!!!



WEST (SEIMART)  TV12P  CHASSIS VS674GR  It's a modular chassis so friendly to service.

Sound unit:687.345.810/A with TDA1190 (Fairchild)

Synch unit:687.305.010/A with ITT TBA950-1

If ampl + Det + demod:687.345.710/B with TDA440

Frame unit: tda1270 -e

Line deflection output + EHT with BU407B AND Line transformer SAREA (Was long time ago a fabricant of transformers & Tv external heavy stabilisator unit)

INTEGRATED circuits are slowly but surely taking over more and more of the circuitry used in television sets even B/W.
The first step, some many years ago now, was to wrap the 6MHz intercarrier sound strip into a neat package such as the TAA350 or TAA570. Then came the "jungle" i.c. which took over the sync separator and a.g.c. operations. Colour receiver decoder circuitry was the next obvious area to be parcelled up in i.c. form,  two i.c. decoder and the more sophisticated Philips four i.c. design was coming on the scene. The latter is about to be superseded by a three i.c. version in which the TBA530 and TBA990 are replaced by the new TCA800 which provides chrominance signal demodulation, matrixing, clamping and preamplification, with RGB outputs of typically 5V peak -to -peak.
To improve performance a number of sets adopted a synchronous detector i.c.-the MC1330P -for vision demodulation, which of course overcomes the problem of quadrature distortion. In one monochrome chassis this i.c. is partnered by a complete vision i.f. strip i.c., the MC1352P. In the timebase section the TBA920 sync separator/line generator i.c. has found its way into several chassis was a Texas's SN76544N 07 i.c. which wraps up the sync separator and both the field and line timebase generators has come into use. Several monochrome portables have had in use a high -power audio output i.c. as the field output stage. Audio i.c.s are of course common, and in several  chassis the Philips TCA270 has put in an appearance. This device incorporates a synchronous detector for vision demodulation, a video preamplifier with noise inversion and the a.g.c. and a.f.c. circuits. The   development to be adopted in a production chassis was that remarkable Plessey i.c., the SL437F, which combines the vision i.f. strip, vision demodulator, a.g.c. system and the intercarrier sound channel.

SGS-Aces Range
Now, from the, at the time,  Italian Development Division of SGS-Ates, comes a new range of i.c.s which SGS  will set a standard pattern for TV chassis IN 1975. How this range combines to provide a complete colour receiver is shown in Fig. 1. The only sections of the receiver left in discrete component form are the video output stages, the tuner, the a.f.c. circuit and of course the line output stage and power supplies. It will be seen that the colour decoder section is split up as in the Philips three i.c. design. The TDA1150 chrominance and burst channel carries out the same functions as the TBA560, the TDA1140 reference section the same functions as the TBA540 and the TDA1160 chrominance demodulator/matrix- ing i.c. the same functions as Philips's new TCA800. It looks therefore as if this basic decoder pattern could become widely established. The other five i.c.s in the range are common to both colour and monochrome receivers. Particularly interesting are the TDA1170 which comprises a complete monochrome receiver field timebase-for colour set use an output stage using discrete com- ponents is suggested-and the TDA440 which incorporates the vision i.f. strip, vision detector and a.g.c. circuitry. The intercarrier sound i.f. strip is neatly packed away with the audio circuitry in the TDA1190 while the TDA1180 sync separator/line oscillator i.c. is a very similar animal to the now well known TBA920. The fifth i.c., the TBA271, is a stabiliser for the varicap tuner tuning supply. The novel i.c.s in this family then were the TDA 440, TDA1170 and the TDA1190 and we shall next take a closer look at each of these.

Vision IF IC:
The TDA440 vision i.f. strip i.c. is housed in a 16 -pin plastic pack with a copper frame. There is a three -stage vision i.f. amplifier with a.g.c. applied over two stages, synchronous vision demodulator, gated a.g.c. system and a pair of video signal pre amplifiers which provide either positive- or negative - going outputs. Fig. 2 shows the i.c. in block diagram form. It is possible to design a very compact i.f. strip using this device and very exact performance is claimed. Note that apart from the tuned circuits which shape the passband at the input the only tuned circuit is the 39.5MHz carrier tank circuit in the limiter/demodulator section. The only other adjustments are the tuner a.g.c. delay potentiometer and a potentiometer (the one shown on the right-hand side) which sets the white level at the demodulator. This of course gives ease of setting up, a help to setmaker and service department alike. For a sensitivity of 200/4V the output is 3.3V peak - to -peak, giving an overall gain in the region of 82 to 85dB. The a.g.c. range is 55dB, a further 30 to 40dB being provided at the tuner. The tuner a.g.c. output is intended for use with a pnp transistor or pin diode tuner unit: an external inverter stage is required with the npn transistor tuner units generally used. discrete component video output stage; in a colour In a monochrome set the output would be fed to a design the output is fed to the chrominance section of the TDA1150 and, via the luminance delay line, to the luminance channel in the TDA1150. Also of course in both cases to the sync separator which in this series of i.c.s is contained in the TDA1180.

Field Timebase IC :
The TDA1170 field timebase i.c. is shown in block diagram form in Fig. 3. The i.c. is housed in a 12 -pin package with copper frame and heat dissipation tabs. It is capable of supplying up to 1.6A peak -to -peak to drive any type of saddle -wound scanning yoke but for a colour receiver it is suggested that the toroidal deflection coil system developed by RCA is used. In this case the i.c. acts as a driver in conjunction with a complementary pair of output transistors. The yoke current in this case is in the region of 6A. The TDA1170 is designed for operation with a nominal 22V supply. It can be operated at up to 35V however. A voltage doubler within the i.c. is brought into action during the flyback time to raise the supply to 70V. Good frequency stability is claimed and the yoke current stability with changes in ambient temperature is such that the usual thermistor in series with the field coils is not required. For monochrome receiver use the power supplied to the yoke would be 0-83W for a yoke current of lA peak -to -peak with a 1012 coil impedance and 20V supply. As the power dissipation rating of the i.c. is 2.2W no further heatsink is required. For use in a colour receiver with a toroidal coil impedance of 1.6Ohm the scanning current would be 7A peak -to -peak. The power supplied to the yoke may be as much as 6.5W while the dissipation in the i.c. would be up to 2-3W. In this case a simple heatsink can be formed from a thin copper sheet soldered to the heat fins- an area of about 3-4 sq. in. should be adequate. The sync circuit at the input gives good noise immunity while the difference between the actual and ideal interlace is less than 0-3% of the field amplitude. Because of the high output impedance a relatively low value (1/iF or less) output coupling capacitor can be used. This means that mylar types instead of electrolytics can be used, reducing the problems of linearity and amplitude stability with respect to temperature and ageing. The external controls shown in Fig. 3 are hold, height and linearity (from left to right).

Complete Sound Channel:
The TDA1190 sound channel (see Fig. 4) is housed in a 12 -pin package. Possible radiation pick-up and thermal feedback risks have been avoided by careful layout of the chip. This pack also has a copper frame, with two cooling tabs which are used as the earthing terminals. The built-in low-pass filter overcomes radiation problems and with a response 3dB down at 3MHz allows for a flat amplitude response throughout the audio range: this particular feature will appeal to hi-fi enthusiasts as well since it makes the i.c. a good proposition for f.m. radio reception. The d.c. volume control has a range of 100dB. The external CR circuit (top, Fig. 4) sets the closed - loop gain of the power amplifier. The external feedback capacitor network (right) provides a.f. bandwidth and frequency compensation while the CR circuit across the output limits any r.f. which could cause severe audio distortion. The TDA1190 does not require an extra heatsink when operating in normal ambient temperatures-up to 55°C-because of the new technique of soldering the chip directly on to the copper frame that forms part of the external tabs. By doing this, SGS-Ates have reduced the thermal resistance of the device to 12°C per watt. The device can dissipate up to 2.2W at 55°C without using an external heatsink other than the printed circuit pad (about 2 sq. in.) which is soldered to the tab. The output stages of the TDA1190 are in quasi - complementary mode (with patented features), eliminating the need for bootstrap operation without loss of power. The absolute maximum output power is 4.2W with a supply voltage of 24V and a nominal loudspeaker impedance of 1612. At 12V and 812 an output of 1.8W can be achieved. Total harmonic distortion is 0.5% for 1 mV f.m. input and 2W output into 1611 at 24V. Satisfactory operation is possible over a voltage supply range of 9 to 28V, making this versatile i.c. suitable for a wide range of applications. The whole audio circuit can be mounted on a p.c.b. 2in. x 25in. without a heatsink.

Mounting: The complete family of i.c.s has been designed so that it can be incorporated in very small and simple printed circuit modules. The use of a copper frame assists in improving the thermal stability as well as facilitating the mounting of the i.c.s on the board. Where an extra heatsink is required this can be a simple fin added to the mounting tabs or a metal clamp on the top of the pack. SGS claim that insta- bility experienced with conventional layouts in colour receivers has been eliminated provided their recommendations are observed.

Power Supplies:
A simple power supply circuit without sophisticated stabilisation can be used. The requirements are for outputs ranging between 10V and 35V with adequate decoupling and smoothing. It was  possible to provide only three supply lines to feed the whole receiver system-plus of course the high- voltage supplies required by the c.r.t. The power supply requirements are simplified since the TDA1170 incorporates a voltage regulator for its oscillator, the TDA440 incorporates a regulator for the vision i.f. strip and the TDA1190 a regulator for the low voltage stages and the d.c. volume control.

The tuning circuits has a large knob potentiometers tuning system which use voltage controlled capacitances such as varactor diodes as the frequency determining elements.
How AFC Circuit Works in B/W Analog Television Receiver:

Push-Button tuning on u.h.f. while being very convenient often leaves a margin of mistuning, especially after some wear and tear has occurred on the mechanism. Even dial tuning can lead to errors due to the difficulty many people experience in judging the correct point. Oscillator drift due to temperature changes can also cause mistuning. Automatic frequency control (a.f.c.) will correct all these faults. The vision carrier when the set is correctly tuned on u.h.f. is at 39.5MHz as it passes down the i.f. strip. Thus if at the end of the i.f. strip a discriminator tuned circuit is incorporated centred on 39.5MHz the discriminator output will be zero at 39.5MHz and will move positively' one side of 39.5MHz and negatively the other as the tuning drifts. This response is shown in Fig. 1.

If the tuning is not correct then the discriminator output is not zero and if this output is applied to change the reverse bias on a tuning diode mounted in the oscillator section of the u.h.f. tuner it will correct most of the error. Tuning, varicap or varactor diodes-to give them a few of their names-are junction diodes normally operated with reverse bias but not sufficient to bias them into the breakdown region in which zener diodes operate. The greater the reverse bias the lower their capacitance: a typical curve, for the PHILIPS BB105 or STC BA141 tuning diode, is shown in Fig. 2. All diodes exhibit this basic type of characteristic but special diodes have to be used for u.h.f. because they must not introduce any excessive loss into the tuned circuits they control. In other words, just as a coil has to have a good Q so does a varicap diode. Normally, we don't worry about the Q of a capacitor as it is usually very good. However, a tuning diode is not a true capacitor. It has, for example, leakage current so the Q of the diode is a factor which has to be considered. The diode manufacturer however will have considered these points and if you buy a diode specified for u.h.f. use you will have no trouble. These points have been mentioned to clear up any misunderstandings and to show why any old diode won't do.

Basic AFC System
To return to our TV set, if the oscillator frequency is too high then the vision carrier frequency will also be too high and in the simple arrangement shown in Fig. 3 the discriminator will give a negative signal to decrease the bias on the tuning diode thus increasing its capacitance and in turn reducing the oscillator frequency and correcting the error. Note that in this diagram the reverse bias on the diode is applied to its cathode. It is therefore positive with respect to ground so that a negative signal from the discriminator will reduce the positive voltage on the diode thus reducing its bias and increasing its capacitance. In this arrangement the diode is biased somewhere near the mid point of its characteristic by the positive d.c. bias fed into one side of the discriminator. The discriminator thus adds to or subtracts from this d.c. bias.

AFC Loop Gain:
The amount by which the error is reduced depends on the gain of the circuit. An estimate of the gain required must first be made by guessing how much error is likely to be given by your push -buttons or hand tuning: 1MHz would be an outside figure as a tuning error of that magnitude would produce a very bad picture of low definition in one direction and badly broken up in the other. This error should be reduced to about 100kHz to be really unnoticeable, indicating a required gain of ten. In fitting a.f.c. to an existing set some measure- ments should be done as an experiment before finally deciding on the circuit gain. The first thing to do is  to add the suggested discriminator to the i.f. strip. As the circuit (Fig. 4) shows a Foster -Seeley type discriminator is used and with the coils specified and the driver circuit shown it should give ±4V for 0.5MHz input variation.

EXAMPLE of Circuit Description:
The driver stage Tr1 takes a small sample signal from the i.f. strip but this should be large enough to drive Tr1 into saturation. That is to say Tr1 is a limiter stage so that the signal amplitude applied to the discriminator coil L2 stays constant over the normal range of signal levels. Trl is biased at approximately 7mA which, according to the original report ("Simple a.f.c. system for 625 -line TV receivers" by P. Bissmire, PHILIPS Technical Communications, March, 1970), gives the best limiting performance. C1, R14 and R3 damp the stage to prevent oscillation. C2 decouples the power feed and should be close to the circuit. The coil former and can are the normal ones used for TV sets and so should be easily obtainable: the former diameter is 5mm. and length 40mm. and winding details are given in Fig. 5.

The invention being thus described, it will be obvious that the same may be varied in many ways. Such variations are not to be regarded as a departure from the spirit and scope of the invention, and all such modifications as would be obvious to one skilled in the art are intended to be included within the scope of the developed apparates both tubes or transistors.

Therefore a stable AFC circuit is developed:

A superheterodyne receiver having an automatic intermediate frequency control circuit with means to prevent the faulty regulation thereof. The receiver has means for receiving a radio frequency signal and mixing the same with the output of a superheterodyne oscillator. This produces an intermediate frequency signal which is coupled to a frequency or phase discriminator to produce an error signal for controlling the frequency of the superheterodyne oscillator. A regulation circuit is provided having an electronic switch to interrupt the feedback circuit when only unwanted frequencies tend to produce faulty regulation of the superheterodyne oscillator.

Power supply is realized with mains transformer and Linear transistorized power supply stabilizer, A DC power supply apparatus includes a rectifier circuit which rectifies an input commercial AC voltage. The rectifier output voltage is smoothed in a smoothing capacitor. Voltage stabilization is provided in the stabilizing circuits by the use of Zener diode circuits to provide biasing to control the collector-emitter paths of respective transistors.A linear regulator circuit according to an embodiment of the present invention has an input node receiving an unregulated voltage and an output node providing a regulated voltage. The linear regulator circuit includes a voltage regulator, a bias circuit, and a current control device.

In one embodiment, the current control device is implemented as an NPN bipolar junction transistor (BJT) having a collector electrode forming the input node of the linear regulator circuit, an emitter electrode coupled to the input of the voltage regulator, and a base electrode coupled to the second terminal of the bias circuit. A first capacitor may be coupled between the input and reference terminals of the voltage regulator and a second capacitor may be coupled between the output and reference terminals of the voltage regulator. The voltage regulator may be implemented as known to those skilled in the art, such as an LDO or non-LDO 3-terminal regulator or the like.
The bias circuit may include a bias device and a current source. The bias device has a first terminal coupled to the output terminal of the voltage regulator and a second terminal coupled to the control electrode of the current control device. The current source has an input coupled to the first current electrode of the current control device and an output coupled to the second terminal of the bias device. A capacitor may be coupled between the first and second terminals of the bias device.
In the bias device and current source embodiment, the bias device may be implemented as a Zener diode, one or more diodes coupled in series, at least one light emitting diode, or any other bias device which develops sufficient voltage while receiving current from the current source. The current source may be implemented with a PNP BJT having its collector electrode coupled to the second terminal of the bias device, at least one first resistor having a first end coupled to the emitter electrode of the PNP BJT and a second end, a Zener diode and a second resistor. The Zener diode has an anode coupled to the base electrode of the PNP BJT and a cathode coupled to the second end of the first resistor. The second resistor has a first end coupled to the anode of the Zener diode and a second end coupled to the reference terminal of the voltage regulator. A second Zener diode may be included having an anode coupled to the cathode of the first Zener diode and a cathode coupled to the first current electrode of the current control device.
A circuit is disclosed for improving operation of a linear regulator, having an input terminal, an output terminal, and a reference terminal. The circuit includes an input node, a transistor, a bias circuit, and first and second capacitors. The transistor has a first current electrode coupled to the input node, a second current electrode for coupling to the input terminal of the linear regulator, and a control electrode. The bias circuit has a first terminal for coupling to the output terminal of the linear regulator and a second terminal coupled to the control electrode of the transistor. The first capacitor is for coupling between the input and reference terminals of the linear regulator, and the second capacitor is for coupling between the output and reference terminals of the linear regulator. The bias circuit develops a voltage sufficient to drive the control terminal of the transistor and to operate the linear regulator. The bias circuit may be a battery, a bias device and a current source, a floating power supply, a charge pump, or any combination thereof. The transistor may be implemented as a BJT or FET or any other suitable current controlled device.

Power Supply: The examples chosen are taken from manufacturers' circuit diagrams and are usually simplified to emphasise the fundamental nature of the circuit. For each example the particular transistor properties that are exploited to achieve the desired performance are made clear. As a rough and ready classification the circuits are arranged in order of frequency: this part is devoted to circuits used at zero frequency, field frequency and audio frequencies. Series Regulator Circuit Portable television receivers are designed to operate from batteries (usually 12V car batteries) and from the a.c. mains. The receiver usually has an 11V supply line, and circuitry is required to ensure that the supply line is at this voltage whether the power source is a battery or the mains. The supply line also needs to have good regulation, i.e. a low output resistance, to ensure that the voltage remains constant in spite of variations in the mean current taken by some of the stages in the receiver. Fig. 1 shows a typical circuit of the power -supply arrangements. The mains transformer and bridge rectifier are designed to deliver about 16V. The battery can be assumed to give just over 12V. Both feed the regulator circuit Trl, Tr2, Tr3, which gives an 11V output and can be regarded as a three -stage direct -coupled amplifier. The first stage Tr 1 is required to give an output current proportional to the difference between two voltages, one being a constant voltage derived from the voltage reference diode D I (which is biased via R3 from the stabilised supply). The second voltage is obtained from a preset potential divider connected across the output of the unit, and is therefore a sample of the output voltage. In effect therefore Tr 1 compares the output voltage of the unit with a fixed voltage and gives an output current proportional to the difference between them. Clearly a field-effect transistor could do this, but the low input resistance of a bipolar transistor is no disadvantage and it can give a current output many times that of a field-effect transistor and is generally preferred therefore. The output current of the first stage is amplified by the two subsequent stages and then becomes the output current of the unit. Clearly therefore Tr2 and Tr3 should be current amplifiers and they normally take the form of emitter followers or common emitter stages (which have the same current gain). By adjusting the preset control we can alter the fraction of the output voltage' applied to the first stage and can thus set the output voltage of the unit at any desired value within a certain range. By making assumptions about the current gain of the transistors we can calculate the degree of regulation obtainable. For example, suppose the gain of Tr2 and Tr3 in cascade is 1,000, and that the current output demanded from the unit changes by 0.1A (for example due to the disconnection of part of the load). The corresponding change in Tr l's collector current is 0.1mA and, if the standing collector current of Tr 1 is 1mA, then its mutual conductance is approximately 4OmA/V and the base voltage must change by 2.5mV to bring about the required change in collector current. If the preset potential divider feeds one half of the output voltage to Tr l's base, then the change in output voltage must be 5mV. Thus an 0.1A change in output current brings about only 5mV change in output voltage: this represents an output resistance of only 0.0552.


The basic essentials of a transistor line output stage are shown in Fig. 1(a). They comprise: a line output transformer which provides the d.c. feed to the line output transistor and serves mainly to generate the high -voltage pulse from which the e.h.t. is derived, and also in practice other supplies for various sections of the receiver; the line output transistor and its parallel efficiency diode which form a bidirectional switch; a tuning capacitor which resonates with the line output transformer primary winding and the scan coils to determine the flyback time; and the scan coils, with a series capacitor which provides a d.c. block and also serves to provide slight integration of the deflection current to compensate for the scan distortion that would otherwise be present due to the use of flat screen, wide deflection angle c.r.t.s. This basic circuit is widely used in small -screen portable receivers with little elaboration - some use a pnp output transistor however, with its collector connected to chassis.

Circuit Variations:
Variations to the basic circuit commonly found include: transposition of the scan coils and the correction capacitor; connection of the line output transformer primary winding and its e.h.t. overwinding in series; connection of the deflection components to a tap on the transformer to obtain correct matching of the components and conditions in the stage; use of a boost diode which operates in identical manner to the arrangement used in valve line output stages, thereby increasing the effective supply to the stage; omission of the efficiency diode where the stage is operated from an h.t. line, the collector -base junction of the line output transistor then providing the efficiency diode action without, in doing so, producing scan distortion; addition of inductors to provide linearity and width adjustment; use of a pair of series -connected line output transistors in some large -screen colour chassis; and in colour sets the addition of line convergence circuitry which is normally connected in series between the line scan coils and chassis. These variations on the basic circuit do not alter the basic mode of operation however.

The most important fact to appreciate about the circuit is that when the transistor and diode are cut off during the flyback period - when the beam is being rapidly returned from the right-hand side of the screen to the left-hand side the tuning capacitor together with the scan coils and the primary winding of the line output transformer form a parallel resonant circuit: the equivalent circuit is shown in Fig. 1(b). The line output transformer primary winding and the tuning capacitor as drawn in Fig. 1(a) may look like a series tuned circuit, but from the signal point of view the end of the transformer primary winding connected to the power supply is earthy, giving the equivalent arrangement shown in Fig. 1(b).

The Flyback Period:
Since the operation of the circuit depends mainly upon what happens during the line flyback period, the simplest point at which to break into the scanning cycle is at the end of the forward scan, i.e. with the beam deflected to the right-hand side of the screen, see Fig. 2. At this point the line output transistor is suddenly switched off by the squarewave drive applied to its base. Prior to this action a linearly increasing current has been flowing in the line output transformer primary winding and the scan coils, and as a result magnetic fields have been built up around these components. When the transistor is switched off these fields collapse, maintaining a flow of current which rapidly decays to zero and returns the beam to the centre of the screen. This flow of current charges the tuning capacitor, and the voltage at A rises to a high positive value - of the order of 1- 2k V in large -screen sets, 200V in the case of mains/battery portable sets. The energy in the circuit is now stored in the tuning capacitor which next discharges, reversing the flow of current in the circuit with the result that the beam is rapidly deflected to the left-hand side of the screen - see Fig. 3. When the tuning capacitor has discharged, the voltage at A has fallen to zero and the circuit energy is once more stored in the form of magnetic fields around the inductive components. One half -cycle of oscillation has occurred, and the flyback is complete.

Energy Recovery:
First Part of Forward Scan The circuit then tries to continue the cycle of oscillation, i.e. the magnetic fields again collapse, maintaining a current flow which this time would charge the tuning capacitor negatively (upper plate). When the voltage at A reaches about -0.6V however the efficiency diode becomes forward biased and switches on. This damps the circuit, preventing further oscillation, but the magnetic fields continue to collapse and in doing so produce a linearly decaying current flow which provides the first part of the forward scan, the beam returning towards the centre of the screen - see Fig. 4. The diode shorts out the tuning capacitor but the scan correction capacitor charges during this period, its right-hand plate becoming positive with respect to its left-hand plate, i.e. point A. Completion of Forward Scan When the current falls to zero, the diode will switch off. Shortly before this state of affairs is reached however the transistor is switched on. In practice this is usually about a third of the way through the scan. The squarewave applied to its base drives it rapidly to saturation, clamping the voltage at point A at a small positive value - the collector emitter saturation voltage of the transistor. Current now flows via the transistor and the primary winding of the line output transformer, the scan correction capacitor discharges, and the resultant flow of current in the line scan coils drives the beam to the right-hand side of the screen see Fig. 5.

The transistor is then cut off again, to give the flyback, and the cycle of events recurs. The efficiency of the circuit is high since there is negligible resistance present. Energy is fed into the circuit in the form of the magnetic fields that build up when the output transistor is switched on. This action connects the line output transformer primary winding across the supply, and as a result a linearly increasing current flows through it. Since the width is
dependent on the supply voltage, this must be stabilised.

Harmonic Tuning:
There is another oscillatory action in the circuit during the flyback period. The considerable leakage inductance between the primary and the e.h.t. windings of the line output transformer, and the appreciable self -capacitance present, form a tuned circuit which is shocked into oscillation by the flyback pulse. Unless this oscillation is controlled, it will continue into and modulate the scan. The technique used to overcome this effect is to tune the leakage inductance and the associated capacitance to an odd harmonic of the line flyback oscillation frequency. By doing this the oscillatory actions present at the beginning of the scan cancel. Either third or fifth harmonic tuning is used. Third harmonic tuning also has the effect of increasing the amplitude of the e.h.t. pulse, and is generally used where a half -wave e.h.t. rectifier is employed. Fifth harmonic tuning results in a flat-topped e.h.t. pulse, giving improved e.h.t. regulation, and is generally used where an e.h.t. tripler is employed to produce the e.h.t. The tuning is mainly built into the line output transformer, though an external variable inductance is commonly found in colour chassis so that the tuning can be adjusted. With a following post I will go into the subject of modern TV line timebases in greater detail with other models and technology shown here at  Obsolete Technology Tellye !

- The EHT Output is realized with a selenium rectifier.

The EHT selenium rectifier which is a Specially designed selenium rectifiers were once widely used as EHT rectifiers in television sets and photocopiers. A layer of selenium was applied to a sheet of soft iron foil, and thousands of tiny discs (typically 2mm diameter) were punched out of this and assembled as "stacks" inside ceramic tubes. Rectifiers capable of supplying tens of thousands of volts could be made this way. Their internal resistance was extremely high, but most EHT applications only required a few hundred microamps at most, so this was not normally an issue. With the development of inexpensive high voltage silicon rectifiers, this technology has fallen into disuse.A selenium rectifier is a type of metal rectifier, invented in 1933. They were used to replace vacuum tube rectifiers in power supplies for electronic equipment, and in high current battery charger applications.

The photoelectric and rectifying properties of selenium were observed by C. E. Fitts around 1886 but practical rectifier devices were not manufactured routinely until the 1930s. Compared with the earlier copper oxide rectifier, the selenium cell could withstand higher voltage but at a lower current capacity per unit area.


 GENERAL DESCRIPTION f The TDA1170 and TDA1270 are monolithic integrated
circuits designed for use in TV vertical deflection systems. They are manufactured using
the Fairchild Planar* process.
Both devices are supplied in the 12-pin plastic power package with the heat sink fins bent
for insertion into the printed circuit board.
The TDA1170 is designed primarily for large and small screen black and white TV
receivers and industrial TV monitors. The TDA1270 is designed primarily for driving
complementary vertical deflection output stages in color TV receivers and industrial
The vertical oscillator is directly synchronized by the sync pulses (positive or negative); therefore its free
running frequency must be lower than the sync frequency. The use of current feedback causes the yoke
current to be independent of yoke resistance variations due to thermal effects, Therefore no thermistor is
required in series with the yoke. The flyback generator applies a voltage, about twice the supply voltage, to
the yoke. This produces a short flyback time together with a high useful power to dissipated power

TBA920 line oscillator combination
The line oscillator combination TBA920 is a monolithic
integrated circuit intended for the horizontal deflection of the black and white
and colour TV sets
picture tube.

 THE TBA920 SYNC/TIMEBASE IC It has been quite common for some time for sync separation to be carried out in an i.c. but until 1971 this was as far as i.c.s had gone in television receiver timebase circuitry. With the recent introduction of the delta featured 110°  colour series however i.c.s have gone a step farther since this chassis uses a TBA920 as sync separator and line generator. A block diagram of this PHILIPS /Mullard  i.c. is shown in Fig. 1.
The video signal at about 2-7V peak -peak is fed to the sync separator section at pin 8, the composite sync waveform appearing at pin 7.
The noise gate switches off the sync separator when a positive -going input pulse is fed in at pin 9, an external noise limiter circuit being required .
The line sync pulses are shaped by R1 /C1 /C2/R2 and fed in to the oscillator phase detector section at pin 6.
The line oscillator waveform is fed internally to the oscillator phase detector circuit which produces at pin 12 a d.c. potential which is used to lock the line oscillator to the sync pulse frequency, the control potential being fed in at pin 15. The oscillator itself is a CR type whose waveform is produced by the charge and discharge of the external capacitor (C7) connected to pin 14. The oscillator frequency is set basically by C7 and R6 and can be varied by the control potential appearing at pin 15 from pin 12 and the external line hold control. Internally the line oscillator feeds a triangular waveform to the oscillator and flyback phase detector sections and the pulse width control section. The coincidence detector section is used to set the time constant of the oscillator phase detector circuit. It is fed internally with sync pulses from the sync separator section, and with line flyback pulses via pin 5. When the flyback pulses are out of phase with the sync pulses the impedance looking into pin 11 is high (21(Q). When the pulses are coincident the impedance falls to about 150Q and the oscillator phase detector circuit is then slow acting. The effect of this is to give fast pull -in when the pulses are out of sync and good noise immunity when they are in sync. The coincidence detector is controlled by the voltage on pin 10. When the sync and flyback pulses are in sync C3 is charged: when they are out of sync C3 discharges via R3. VTR use has been taken into consideration here. With a video recorder it is necessary to be able to follow the sync pulse phase variations that occur as a result of wow and flutter in the tape transport system, while noise is much less of a problem. For use with a VTR therefore the network on pin 10 can simply be left out so that the oscillator phase detector circuit is always fast acting. A second control loop is used to adjust the timing of the pulse output obtained from pin 2 to take into account the delay in the line output stage. The fly back phase detector compares the frequency of the flyback pulses fed in at pin 5 with the oscillator signal which has already been synchronised to the sync pulse frequency.
Any phase difference results in an output from pin 4 which is integrated and fed into the pulse width control section at pin 3. The potential at pin 3 sets the width of the output pulse obtained at pin 2: with a high positive voltage (via R11 and R12) at pin 3 a 1:1 mark -space ratio out- put pulse (32/us on, 32/us off) will be produced while a low potential at pin 3 (negative output at pin 4) will give a 16us output pulse at  the same frequency. The action of this control loop continues until the fly- back pulses are in phase with a fixed point on the oscillator waveform: the flyback pulses are then in phase with the sync pulses and delays in the line output stage are compensated. The output obtained at pin 2 is of low impedance and is suitable for driving valves, transistors or thyristors: R9 is necessary to provide current limiting.


HISTORY OF Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG IN GERMAN:

Die Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG (heute Alcatel-Lucent Deutschland AG) ist ein Unternehmen der Nachrichtentechnik (früherer Slogan: SEL – Die ganze Nachrichtentechnik) mit Hauptsitz in Stuttgart. Zur Nachrichtentechnik zählen auch Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik, Telekommunikationstechnik (SEL war für die Röchelschaltung bekannt) und früher Fernmeldetechnik oder Schwachstromtechnik. Einen weiteren Geschäftsbereich hatte das Unternehmen in der Bahnsicherungstechnik, so wurden für die Deutsche Bundesbahn Relaisstellwerke und elektronische Stellwerke mit den dazugehörigen Außenanlagen (Signale, Gleisfreimeldeanlagen, Weichenantriebe) sowie die Linienzugbeeinflussung entwickelt und gebaut, welche auch bei ausländischen Bahnen Abnehmer fanden. Der Bereich gehört seit 2007 als Thales Transportation Systems GmbH (seit 02.2011 vorher Thales Rail Signalling Solutions GmbH) zum Thales-Konzern. Die bereits 1998 ausgegliederten Bereiche Alcatel Air Navigation Systems und SEL Verteidigungssysteme sind ebenfalls heute in Thales Deutschland beheimatet.
Fernseher Illustraphon 743 von 1957
„Goldsuper Stereo 20“ (1961)
Das Flaggschiff der erfolgreichen Schaub-Lorenz Kofferradios der sechziger Jahre: Touring 70 Universal
Erster Digitalfernseher der Welt (1983)

Bis 1987 gehörte SEL zusammen mit anderen auf dem Sektor Telekommunikation in anderen Ländern tätigen Schwesterfirmen zum US-amerikanischen Mischkonzern International Telephone and Telegraph (ITT). ITT verkaufte die Aktien-Mehrheit an den ITT-Telekommunikationsfirmen an die französische Compagnie Générale d’Electricité (CGE), die nach der Zusammenfassung mit den eigenen Telekommunikationsaktivitäten daraus die Alcatel N.V. bildete.

Die Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG wurde 1993 in Alcatel SEL AG umbenannt. Die Aktienmehrheit liegt mit über 99 % bei der Alcatel. Mit der Fusion von Alcatel und Lucent zu Alcatel-Lucent am 1. Dezember 2006 und der Neu-Firmierung beider Unternehmen in Deutschland zur Alcatel-Lucent Deutschland AG entfiel der Zusatz SEL.


Die beiden Stammfirmen des Unternehmens, die Mix & Genest AG und die Telegraphenbauanstalt von C. Lorenz, wurden 1879 bzw. 1880 gegründet. Das erste Patent von Mix & Genest datiert von 1883, das erste Patent von C. Lorenz ist aus dem Jahr 1902.

Das Unternehmen Mix & Genest war wesentlicher Teil der Standard Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft (SEG), in die auch die Süddeutsche Apparatefabrik (SAF), die 1875 von F. Heller als "Friedrich Heller, Fabrik Elektrotechnischer Apparate" gegründet wurde, integriert wurde. Der technische Schwerpunkt von Mix & Genest bzw. SEG sowie der C. Lorenz AG war der klassischen Fernmelde- bzw. Funktechnik zuzuordnen. Die C. Lorenz AG baute in den 1920er und 1930er Jahren Großsender für den neu gegründeten Rundfunk.

1930 übernahm die International Telephone and Telegraph Company (ITT) die Aktienmehrheit der Mix & Genest AG und der C. Lorenz AG.

Die C. Lorenz AG positionierte sich mit der Übernahme der G. Schaub Apparatebau-Gesellschaft mbH im Jahr 1940 in der Entwicklung und Herstellung von Rundfunkempfängern. Ab dem Jahr 1950 wurden alle Geräte bei Schaub in Pforzheim gefertigt. 1952 wurde das Typenprogramm beider Unternehmen verschmolzen und der Lorenz-Radio-Vertrieb in die Firma Schaub integriert. Ab 1955 wurden die Geräte unter dem Namen Schaub-Lorenz vertrieben.

1956 wurde das Unternehmen SEG in Standard Elektrik AG umbenannt. Ebenfalls 1956 wurde ein Kabelwerk gegründet. Wesentlicher Motor für das 1957 gegründete Informatikwerk war Karl Steinbuch, der von 1948–1958 dem Unternehmen, zuletzt als Technischer Direktor und Leiter der Zentralen Forschung, angehörte.

1958 erfolgte die Vereinigung der Standard Elektrik AG mit der C. Lorenz AG zur Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG (SEL).

Die Standard Elektrik Lorenz AG übernahm 1961 die Graetz KG. Die Firmenteile Schaub-Lorenz und Graetz waren zusammen mit einem Bildröhrenwerk Bestandteil der Unternehmensgruppe Audio Video der SEL AG, die 1979 als Audio-Video-Elektronik in die ITT ausgegliedert wurde. Die Produkte, die unter anderem Fernsehgeräte, Radios, Autoradios, Kassettenrecorder, Weltempfänger und Lautsprecherboxen umfassen, wurden fortan unter dem Namen ITT Schaub-Lorenz vertrieben.

Versuche, auf dem neuen Gebiet der Raumfahrt-Elektronik Fuß zu fassen, waren auf folgende Produkte beschränkt:

* AZUR: Telemetrie/Telekommandogeräte
* Spacelab: Datenerfassung/Kommandoterminal.

SEL entwickelte zu Beginn der 1970er Jahre das Präzisionsanflugverfahren SETAC. Dieser Unternehmensbereich wurde im Jahre 1987 von der finnischen Firma Nokia übernommen.

1976 hatte SEL ein Grundkapital von 357 Mio. DM bei 33.000 Beschäftigten und einem Umsatz von 2,6 Mrd. DM.

1983 stellte S E L auf der Internationalen Funkausstellung Berlin 1983 mit dem ITT Digivision den weltweit ersten Fernseher mit digitaler Signalverarbeitung vor.

2003 wurden die Markenrechte am Namen Schaub Lorenz an die italienische General Trading SpA verkauft. Die neugegründete Schaub Lorenz International GmbH vertreibt seitdem unter dem alten Markennamen Schaub-Lorenz importierte Konsumelektronik aus dem unteren Preisbereich.